英語で学ぶサステナビリティ (39)


今月はいよいよ最終節Lesson 12, “Social Business”「ソーシャルビジネス」を読みます。とくに難しい単語はないですが、ビジネスでよく用いられる表現が出てきます。


dividend 配当金
joint-stock company 合資会社(英:株式会社)
limited liability company 有限責任会社
entity 独立した存在(体)
supplement 補足
pay out 支払う
in excess of  ~を上回って
principal  元金


Every company has two purposes: an economic purpose, such as sales, profits and dividends, and a social purpose, which is to fulfil its social responsibility. The term of social business refers to an economic activity with a high proportion of “social purpose,” that is, solving social problems. Companies practicing social business are sometimes called “social enterprises.” You can use the term for the entire business domain of a company, or for a company’s CSR activities that are more business-oriented.


business domain は「事業ドメイン(領域)」。どの領域で(主力)事業を展開するかはビジネスの基本であり、戦略を方向付ける決め手となります。

business-orientedは「ビジネス色が強い」ですが、“focus on business”ともいえます。「〇〇色が強い」などの表現は、要するに何を言っているのか、をシンプルかつ明確にして訳語を決めるとよいでしょう。

Patagonia (U.S.) for outdoor products and The Body Shop (U.K.) and Aveda (U.S.) for cosmetics are known as pioneers of social business. Social businesses are not limited to corporations (joint-stock companies and limited liability companies), but include non-profit organizations such as cooperatives and NGOs/NPOs, and third-sector entities operated by the private sector and government. The term “social firm” is used to describe an entity that specializes in employment and social welfare services for the disabled and those who have difficulty working.


Patagonia (U.S.) ,The Body Shop (U.K.) , Aveda (US) いずれもあえて説明は不要かもしれませんが、パタゴニアに関して、若い人むけの切り口から語られた講演をご紹介します。
なぜpatagoniaは、憧れの企業になったのか? 「共創」をキーワードとするブランディングカンパニーの価値 – ログミーBiz (logmi.jp)

【トップに聞く 2022】ザボディショップジャパン 倉田浩美社長 創業から貫くサステナビリティ精神に共感 (fashionsnap.com) 「日本ならでは」の取り組みについて触れられています。

アヴェダについては、課題ではなく、使命として――アヴェダの環境経営 – オルタナS (alterna.co.jp)

なお limited liability company は「有限責任会社」ですが、日本では「合同会社」と呼ばれます。2006年5月施行された会社法によって新設された会社形態で、社員(会社の出資者である構成員)は、その出資額の範囲内で会社債権者に責任を負う、というものです。米国のLLCをもとにしていますが、異なっている部分もありますので要注意です。


Since the 1980s, social business has emerged as a supplement to various public services, as social security spending was drastically reduced under the Reagan and Thatcher governments during this time. In Japan, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) has been encouraging social business for the past few years. METI explains the definition of “social business” as follows: In local communities, a wide variety of social issues are becoming more and more apparent, ranging from environmental protection, care and welfare for the elderly and disabled, support for raising children, and urban development and tourism. Social business (SB) /community business (CB) are to solve issues in local communities with business method through the cooperation of various entities, including residents, NPOs and companies.


social security spending は「社会保障支出」。


Merrian-Webster Dictionary では以下のように説明されています。

(1) a-BEINGEXISTENCEespecially independent, separate, or self-contained existence)b- the existence of a thing as contrasted with its attributes (2) something that has separate and distinct existence and objective or conceptual reality (3) an organization (such as a business or governmental unit) that has an identity separate from those of its members. 「独立した事業体」と考えればよいでしょう。

In Japan, social businesses have been gradually emerging and growing since the 2000s. For example, Florence, a childcare company, is a business-type NPO, while CarePro is an inexpensive health check-up company and is well known as a joint-stock company. Recently, the number of business-oriented CSR activities of large corporations has been increasing. This is called “CSV (creation of shared value).” On the side of companies, this is not a one-way cost burden, as is the case with donations. They are expected to expand further in the future as business revenues can also be expected to expand the business.


cost burdenは「経費負担」です。「一方的」はone-way となっていますが、unilateral という表現(形容詞)もぜひ覚えてください。


The world’s most famous social business leader in many countries is Muhammad Yunus, the founder of Grameen Bank, that was founded in 1983 to provide low-interest, unsecured loans called “microcredit” to help the poor manage their finances. Yunus defined social business as investors can only recover their investment. No dividends are paid out in excess of the principal of the investment.” However, some people think that this definition is too strict on investors and, conversely, discourages capital flow to social businesses.


unsecured loanは「無担保ローン」。「(投資金を)回収する」は recover を使えます。


There are various forms of social business, and their definitions are not yet unified. However, there is no doubt that the presence of social business has increased dramatically in many countries, where  the demand for corporate social activities from the society is increasing, and they face the tight budget balances of governments as well as the insufficient quality and quantity of public services.


budget balanceは「予算収支」。presenceは「存在」以外に「存在感」という意味もあります。

ソーシャルビジネスについてはぜひ『未来に選ばれる会社―CSRから始まるソーシャル・ブランディング』(森摂・オルタナ編集部著)をご一読ください。未来に選ばれる会社 CSRから始まるソーシャル・ブランディング|学芸出版社 (gakugei-pub.co.jp)



相島 淑美(神戸学院大学経営学部准教授)

日本経済新聞記者、清泉女子大学英文学科教員を経て現職。翻訳家。鈴木淑美名義でJFK伝記など20数冊の訳書がある。 博士(先端マネジメント、関西学院大学)、MBA(関西学院大学)、修士(文学、慶應義塾大学)。文化・文学の視点から日本のマーケティング、SDGs、エシカル消費について研究している。執筆記事一覧

キーワード: #サステナビリティ